This means that the pyroclastic flow in this area moved at an average speed of 32 km/h (8.8 m/s), which is considered slow for pyroclastic flow (see Cas and Wright 1987). A mixture of air-fall and pyroclastic flow deposits appears to have settled in the vicinity of the summit. The volcano erupted on … 3c), and parts of the J5 vent could be recognized near the eastern side of the valley wall (Fig. The eruption of Mt Ontake produced a huge pyroclastic flow which trapped 250 people on its slopes. 3c). For anguished families, the wait for news was taking its toll. The initial phase of the eruption may therefore have been caused by the ejection of this vapor phase to the surface at 11:52 on September 27; however, the ejection of this gas phase did not generate large amounts of ballistic ejecta, probably because the intensity of the resulting explosion was too low. In that time, very little ballistic ejecta landed near the summit, where many people were killed on impact. The grim discovery brings the number of people feared to have died in the Mount Ontake eruption to 36. Ontake Volcano in 2014. The eruption plume increased in size shortly after the eruption and reached a height of several hundred meters above the summit (Kengamine; Fig. Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyoku, Tokyo, 113-0032, Japan, Takayuki Kaneko, Fukashi Maeno & Setsuya Nakada, You can also search for this author in The 3,067m high peak is a popular hiking route, dotted with lodges, cabins and well marked trails, hence why there were over 50 deaths (the majority being hikers near the … An exercise using geographical and empathetic language (PDF), An exercise using geographical and empathetic language (Word), Map and GIS work about Japan’s vulnerability (PDF), Map and GIS work about Japan’s vulnerability (Word), A literacy based exercise; writing for an audience about Japan’s preparedness (PDF), A literacy based exercise; writing for an audience about Japan’s preparedness (Word), Cartoon interpretation about Japan’s Natural Hazard Profile (PDF), Cartoon interpretation about Japan’s Natural Hazard Profile (Word). Mount Ontake is a volcano located on the Japanese island of Honshu around 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of Nagoya and around 200 km (120 mi) west of Tokyo. Assuming an ejection angle of 45° and a horizontal travel distance of 1000 m, the initial velocity was estimated to be 99 m/s based on a simple ballistic trajectory calculation without air resistance and vertical dip. Geographical investigations around the house, garden, local area and school grounds, Conducting statistical tests for fieldwork, Progression and expectations in geography, Connecting classrooms through global learning, Assessment and examinations Special Interest Group, Fieldwork and outdoor learning Special Interest Group, Independent schools Special Interest Group, Physical Geography Special Interest Group, Sustainability and citizenship Special Interest Group, Physical geography student photo competition, GA Rex Walford Geography student teacher award, An exercise using geographical and empathetic language, Map and GIS work about Japan’s vulnerability, A literacy based exercise; writing for an audience about Japan’s preparedness, Cartoon interpretation about Japan’s Natural Hazard Profile, Early Warning of Volcanic Eruption in Japan, LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS JAPAN PART 3: VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS. 2013). Photographs of the eruption vents and fissures on the western slope of the Ichinoike cone, taken at 14:53 on September 28, Pyroclastic flow-like units occurred during this eruption. Mount Ontake is a volcano located on the Japanese island of Honshu around 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of Nagoya and around 200 km (120 mi) west of Tokyo. 3e, f), probably due to erosion caused by repeated mudflows from the vent. Nine people had been reported to be injured, five of whom had fractured bones. 2015). (in press) (in Japanese), Taniguchi H, Ueki S (2014) What was going on under the Ontake volcano? 7, Zone C ➈). Available for everyone, funded by readers, Police say 50 bodies have been retrieved from Mount Ontake after it erupted one week ago, Seven more bodies recovered from Mount Ontake on Wednesday morning, but reports vary on how many people are still unaccounted for, Rescuers suspend plans to recover bodies from near summit as seismic activity increases at Mount Ontake, Hikers caught in the open on Mount Ontake were buried alive by ash or battered to death by falling rocks, survivors say. It is aimed at key stages 3–4, and can be adapted for use at key stage 5. a Distribution of pyroclastic flow deposits and air-fall ash. 5d). Rescuers were hampered by the ongoing eruption, and debate followed over the lack of warning prior to the eruption. On the western slope of the Ichinoike cone, the fissures generated were arranged along an east–west trending axis, with the W1 vent in the center (Fig. A volcanic eruption happened on Mount Ontake which caused over 50 tourist dead in centre Japan on September 27,2014. Ontake volcano eruption victims to sue state, Nagano Pref", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2014_Mount_Ontake_eruption&oldid=976914572, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 63 dead (inclusive of five un-recovered bodies), This page was last edited on 5 September 2020, at 20:43. a Distribution of the eruption vents on September 28, 2014. b Eruption vents in the Jigokudani valley at 14:13 on September 27 and c at 16:44 on September 27. Because the Jigokudani valley extends along a north-northeast to south-southwest axis, and because the vents are located on the valley floor, it is possible that the valley walls acted as barriers to ejecta, preventing ballistics from being ejected far beyond the valley walls along both sides of the valley. Yama-Kei Publishers, Tokyo (in Japanese), Yamamoto T (2014) The pyroclastic density currents generated by the September 27, 2014 phreatic eruption of Ontake Volcano, Japan. The distribution density was classified into four zones, based on the number of craters per unit area (5 × 5 m); these zones were called Zones A, B, C, and D, with Zone A having the highest density of impact craters and Zone D having no impact craters. Ontake, Japan 2014 Volcanic Eruption HIC Case Study…Mt. Mount Ontake, an active volcano and popular visitor destination on Honshu island in Japan, erupted without warning on September 27th at 11.52 am. The sudden eruption led to a tragedy in which more than 60 hikers on the mountain were killed or went missing. In the photograph taken at 14:13 on September 27 (Figs. Given the frequency with which phreatic eruptions occur, this study may serve as an important catalyst to understanding, and potentially predicting, similar events around the globe. Here, even if we assumed the diameter to be 1 m, the estimated initial velocity would be 108 m/s. In the photograph taken at 15:11 (Fig. 5a). 7). Initial velocity estimates for ballistic ejecta were made based on their distribution. On September 28, the day following the eruption, between 13:54 and 15:15, one of us (TK) surveyed the volcano from a media helicopter (Chunichi/Tokyo Shimbun Newspaper Co.) and took more than 350 images of the areas affected by the eruption with a digital camera (SONY DSC-RX100M2). Ontakesan eruption hits 47, worst in postwar period", "3 more bodies found on Mt. 4). (Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JB013739, 2017), Research Spotlight Misunderstanding reports about the 774 AD and 1892 AD eruptions. The ash collected on the roofs of buildings and they collapsed under the weight. In addition to these photographs, we also used many images and videos of the eruption that were captured by hikers and members of the mass media.