2016; 7(15):2408-2419. BioMed research international. In the future, more research will be conducted to explore its mechanisms and functions in the treatment of cancer. The significant up-regulation of P21, WAF1 and CIP1 resulted in cell cycle arrest. Wu L, Sun J, Su X, Yu Q, Yu Q, Zhang P. A review about the development of fucoidan in antitumor activity: progress and challenges. 2010;46(1):6–12. Fucoidan, a natural component of brown seaweed, has anti-cancer activity against various cancer types by targeting key apoptotic molecules. 2015;47(11):925–31. Mar Drugs. 2012;87:153–9. reported that fucoidan-induced human bladder cancer 5637 cells apoptosis was linked with the increasing in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, structural destruction of mitochondrial membranes, and the releasing of cytochrome C. Under the same experimental conditions, scientists found that fucoidan reduces the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), proto-oncogene transcription factor (c-myc) and stimulating protein 1(Sp1). 2014;12:851-70, 36. Ebringerová A, Hromádková Z. Cells were seeded in 6-well tissue culture dishes at 1 × 105 cells per well. S6K1 promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells in a model of metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer. Fourth, fucoidan can also activate immune system of the body, then enhancing the ability of natural killer cells and T cells to kill tumor cells. Google Scholar. This paper reviews the mechanism by which fucoidan can eliminate tumor cells, delay tumor growth and synergize with anticancer chemotherapy drugs in vitro, in vivo and in clinical trials. Cancer cell. Among the different subtypes of breast cancer, the triple-negative subtype, defined as no/low ER, PR, and Her2 expression levels, accounts for 10%-20% of all breast cancers, and this subtype is associated with a high risk of tumor recurrence because of the lack of a reliable, specific targeted chemotherapeutic agent . Fucoidan regulates the miR-29c/ADAM12 and miR-17-5p/PTEN axes to inhibit the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer cell survival in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Its relative mechanism of action has been elucidated in similar experiments. The metastatic potential of triple-negative breast cancer is decreased via caloric restriction-mediated reduction of the miR-17~92 cluster. ADAM12 expression has been reported to be increased in human breast cancer and breast cancer cell lines . Alekseyenko et al. et al. The seven members of the miR-17~92 cluster play vital roles predominantly in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and programmed cell death 4, which promote migration and invasion of metastatic cancer cells . Duan Y, Li J, Jing X, Ding X, Yu Y, Zhao Q. Fucoidan induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma via the p38 MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signal pathways. Fucoidan exerted stronger inhibitory effects on the triple-negative type MDA-MB-231 cells than on the luminal A-type MCF-7 cells. Yamasaki-Miyamoto Y, Yamasaki M, Tachibana H, Yamada K. Fucoidan induces apoptosis through activation of caspase-8 on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Microwave or ultrasound is used to drive the water molecules in cells to vibrate, thereby breaking the cells and improving the efficiency of traditional water extraction method . Hsu HY, Lin TY, Wu YC, Tsao SM, Hwang PA, Shih YW. Yang et al. Yang G, Zhang Q, Kong Y, Xie B, Gao M, Tao Y, Xu H, Zhan F, Dai B, Shi J, et al. Fucoidan as a marine anticancer agent in preclinical development. (B) (D) After transfection of cells, the ADAM12- and PTEN-dependent luciferase activity of breast cancer cells was measured using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System 48 h after treatment, as indicated. In addition, fucoidan can effectively activate the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38 MAPK inhibitors, and largely went against fucoidan-induced apoptosis by inhibiting Bax translocation and caspases activity, suggesting that the activation of p38 MAPK may play an essential part in fucoidan-induced apoptosis. Mar Drugs. 2011;378:771-84, 56. With the development of a large number of anti-tumor effects and related mechanisms of fucoidan, scientists have found that the low toxicity and anti-inflammatory properties of fucoidan make it an adjuvant therapy for tumor patients based on conventional treatment . Huang TH, Chiu YH, Chan YL, Chiu YH, Wang H, Huang KC, Li TL, Hsu KH, Wu CJ. The low molecular weight fucoidan were separated into DF1, DF2 and DF3 after processing.
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