They pass the impulses to the cell body and then along the axon. It is clear that both dendrites and axon arise from the cell body of a neuron. The nervous system is a complex bodily system responsible for controlling and coordinating numerous functions in the body. o In a monosynaptic reflex arc, the sensory (afferent, presynaptic) neuron fires directly onto the motor (efferent, postsynaptic) neuron. This process goes on till the electrical impulse reaches the relay neurons in spinal cord and brain. It is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Introduction to Autonomic Nervous System: The autonomic nervous system supplies the viscera. Neurons contain the same basic parts as any other animal cell but their structure is specially adapted to be able to carry messages over large distances in the body quickly. The somatic nervous system is responsible for voluntary actions—most notably, moving muscles. In medical school, your courses on neuroscience will go into astounding detail about the nervous system, including the circuits that govern sensations such as pain and temperature, and circuits that allow your body to move and function. The messages which the neurons transmit in the nervous system are in the form of electrical impulses called nerve impulses (or just impulses). 2. 4. (ii) Motor neurons transmit impulses from the central nervous system (spinal cord and brain) towards the muscle cells (or effectors). The nervous system is responsible for managing our thinking process, emotions, and body functions. It responds to stimuli through gathering information, interpreting it, and providing an appropriate response. Getting deeper into it the peripheral is then divided into two as well. The parasympathetic nervous system promotes “rest-and-digest” functions, slowing heart rate and constricting the bronchi, redistributing blood to the gut, promoting exocrine secretions, constricting the pupils, and promoting peristalsis and urinary function. The nervous system is made up of two systems; the central nervous system or CNS and the peripheral nervous system or PNS. It is the seat of personality and, ultimately, the system that makes you you. Thus, synapses connect neurons (though it looks surprising that even gaps can connect two things!). Content Guidelines The nervous system is one of the most fascinating and complex of the human body; millions upon millions of cells allow for our appropriate interactions in the everyday world. 6. The nervous system functions as the communication and control system of the body through electrical and chemical signals. We can now say that: A microscopic gap between a pair of adjacent neurons over which nerve impulses pass when going from one neuron to the next is called a synapse. Copyright. The viscera include the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory and urogenital systems, the heart and blood vessels, the intrinsic muscles of the eye and the endocrine and exocrine glands. The axon transmits an electrical signal (the action potential) from the soma to the synaptic knob. The Nervous system is composed of two parts which then branches into more divisions, the central and the peripheral. It is the control system for all our actions, thinking and behaviour. The axon hillock integrates excitatory and inhibitory signals from the dendrites and fires an action potential if the excitatory signals are strong enough to reach threshold. Peripheral nervous system- The PNS is made up, The nervous system is a system of nerve cells and fibres that transmit electrical impulses throughout the whole body. The synaptic bouton lies at the end of the axon and releases neurotransmitters. The nervous system also passes information from one internal system to another. The potassium channel opens second at approximately +35 mV. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for involuntary actions, like heart rate, bronchial dilation, dilation of the pupils, exocrine gland function, and peristalsis. We will now understand the conduction of electrical nerve impulses through synapse with the help of a diagram. The peripheral nervous system includes cranial and spinal nerves and sensors. The nervous system is a network of neurons (nerve cells) that that sends information to the brain to be analyzed. Nervous tissue consists of two main types of cells: neurons and neuroglia. The most basic and important part in the usefulness of the Nervous System is the Neuron. Efferent (motor) neurons bring signals from the central nervous system to an effector. o In a polysynaptic reflex arc, the sensory neuron may fire onto a motor neuron as well as interneurons that fire onto other motor neurons.