Many trees were blown down across Ireland, the English Midlands & in counties bordering the English south coast. Damage also occurred to standing crops, and the high winds were accompanied by heavy rain, which brought river flooding to England, Wales & Ireland - delaying the harvest - which was already compromised by the wet/windy weather. During the English Civil War Plymouth, in common with the other major port towns, sided with the Parliamentarians and so was isolated from the surrounding regions of Devon and Cornwall which were held by Royalist sympathisers. From various reports across the British Isles, an unusually extended and occasionally severe spell of cold held sway, from the third week of January until around 21st/22nd February, 1855. Part of a notably dry period in the mid/late 1850s: see below. During this period, ice noted on the Thames. Gales, at least BF10, were reported by most ships and some coastal stations across the southern part of the British Isles, with ENE'ly gales across Scotland (north of the depression track).
Over the Christmas period (25th to 27th) two major storms of wind (from the SW) affected the British Isles: Heavy rain also a problem (see above) and there was widespread & serious damage due to high winds & flooding. A notably dry year over England & Wales: Using the EWP series, with a value of 745 mm (~80%) this year was within the 'top-20' of driest years since that record began in 1766. [This was noted at the time as 15mm higher than the previous daily highest fall on a record at the site back to 1844. From a farming diary kept in the coastal district of NW Ireland (Connaught), the period mid-February to early May may have been one of notable lack of rainfall. In the 1950s a new Royal Navy Engineering College was built at Manadon, and HMS Raleigh, the current basic training facility of the Royal Navy, was opened west of Torpoint. January was cold with mention of hail/thunder and snow implying deeply cold tropospheric airmasses, which gave way to a wet February when the land was often too wet to plough - April was also noted as being . Water mains were frozen well below the surface to a depth of 2 to 3 ft (just under 1m). 41 vessels, mostly big deep-sea boats sailed out.
That part of the town owned by Plympton Priory was granted a market charter in 1254, and the whole town and its surrounding area achieved municipal independence in 1439, becoming the first town to be incorporated by Act of Parliament. The bid for city status was eventually granted in 1928 and constituted as the City of Plymouth. In Aberystwyth the winds blew down various buildings: at Limerick (western Ireland) it was reported that a 'violent gale from the northwest brought heavy showers of rain & sleet, with window glass broken, slates removed from houses and chimneys blown down. As the event gave way, which occurred 10th/11th March in Ireland, then significant snow was recorded - this may have been a feature elsewhere across the British Isles, but I've no other data to back that up. After his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte was brought to Plymouth aboard HMS Bellerophon which remained in Plymouth Sound with the ex-emperor aboard for two weeks before his exile to St Helena. In 1712 there were 318 men employed and by 1733 it had grown to a population of 3,000 people. 2 m drifts in Portsmouth. Due to its strategic proximity to the northern coast of France and its naval pre-eminence, the city was heavily bombed by the Luftwaffe during the Second World War, an event known as the Plymouth Blitz. However, due to poor planning, and a lack of both cavalry and siege artillery aboard the fleet, the expedition was ultimately defeated. the coldest and wettest year on record, a very late harvest - I saw two fields of oats in stook in Co. Meath on the 17th Decr. Notably wet period. CET 1850 (February)
In the Armagh Observatory record ( a fair way away from the diary source of course ), February, March and April all had well below-average rainfall / precipitation amounts.
On the 9th (and later?
The third Eddystone Lighthouse, Smeaton's Tower, was assembled from granite at Millbay from 1756 to 1759 and marked a major leap forward in the development of lighthouse design – the upper portion remains the most iconic landmark of the modern city. In the Greenwich record, the total rainfall for the three months of June, July & August=285mm (188%), with June exceptionally wet at 277% of LTA for that station. The wet, unsettled conditions set in on the 15th January, and came to a halt during the first week of April - however note that the remainder of April was still hardly conducive to efficient farming being often recorded as cold, with snow / hail and frost.
At Stonehouse was built the Royal Marine Barracks,1782, and the Royal Naval Hospital built 1762;. But toiling on a merchant ship was hard and dangerous, and many seamen were malnourished and disillusioned. Using the EWP series (not necessarily representative of the whole of Britain), the anomaly was between 60 and 70% of average for that season.  Defences on St Nicholas Island also date from this time, and a string of six artillery blockhouses were built (including one on Fishers Nose at the south-eastern corner of the Hoe). Plymouth deprived of water for a week, and it took about a week before road and rail travel returned to normal.
A snowstorm occurred between the 1st & 2nd, 1867 causing great hindrance to railway traffic. (2nd coldest was 1962/63) [ for the CET series, winter 1962-63. Records from Cambridge Observatory show that there were actually air frosts on 70 of the 84 nights between 26th December 1894 and 20th March 1895.
45cm depth in Brighton, 30cm in Exeter and on Dartmoor, as much as 100 cm. From contemporary reports . Possible 5m drift in Oxford Circus. . " If you have an interest in local history or other skills you can contribute, we'd like to hear from you! A wet autumn & early winter: the total rainfall (EWP series) from September to December (inclusive) was 502 mm, which represents roughly 140% of the all-series average. The modern name has two parts: Plym and mouth. These eight years began with the wettest calendar year in the EWP series (see above), and culminated in the second wettest summer in that set; the 'growing-to-harvest' periods (May - September) of 1872, 1875, 1877, 1878 & 1879 all experienced well-above average rainfall - that of 1879 being some 160% above the 'all-series' mean.
As factories were being built, businesses were in need of workers. The overall value (December, January & February) was = 6.77, representing an anomaly of +3.2C on the all-series mean; December had a value of 7.2 (+3.1), January 5.6 (+2.4) & February 7.5 (+3.7). In 1988, to mark the 400th anniversary of defeat of the Spanish Armada the majority of the city centre was pedestrianised, closed to vehicular traffic and the city centre was landscaped and a new shopping centre named the Armada Centre marked the transition to the tourist economy as the employment at the Dockyards began to fall away. 5 Weather Things To Know About The Week Ahead, ECMWF 850mb UK City Temperature Forecasts, http://www.scarboroughsmaritimeheritage.org.uk/ayorkshirestorm.php.
For all these five months, the anomaly was greater than -1C, with April, May & July greater than -2C (wrt all-series mean): more below. Living Conditions in New York City .
On the west Cornish coast, near Mawgan Porth, the 'Lord Duncan', a Dartmouth (South Devon) registered vessel was lost with all hands.  Foulston was an important and early advocate of the Greek Revival and was responsible for several grand public buildings, many now destroyed, including the Athenaeum, the Theatre Royal and Royal Hotel, and he was responsible for the implementation of Union Street a grand thoroughfare proposed to unite the Three Towns. The failure (or partial failure) of the potato crop in Ireland, as in 'marginal' rural areas elsewhere, would lead to much distress in the tenant farming community.  And so the name of the town Sutton slowly became Plymouth. At Torquay and Sidmouth, Devon over 30 cm of snow fell. It appears from a contemporary farmer's journal kept in coastal districts of Connaught, NW Ireland that it was (in NW Ireland) . Plymouth Pier, 1884 – the last by noted pier builder Eugenius Birch – and the unique Art Deco Lido Tinside Pool of 1935 were constructed as seafront leisure facilities reflecting the growing importance of tourism to the new city's economy.
At Greenwich observatory, the day maximum on that day (15th) was only (minus) 2.8degC. One particular tragedy involved the destruction of almost the entire fishing fleet from the port of Eyemouth in Berwickshire.
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